A bioengineering bioengineer can “recreate” the genetic code of a living organism, but how exactly does that happen?
The answer may surprise you, because there’s still much debate about exactly how it’s done.
A few key ingredients can be found in the genomes of many different organisms, but most people are not familiar with the precise process.
“We do not know what is happening inside cells when a gene is turned on or off,” said Richard Schoettler, the founding director of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.
He explained that it’s not just about making genes and turning them on and off at will.
In some organisms, a gene can be turned off and turned on again by an external factor.
The genes are switched off by a protein called RNA, which is the “building block” of all living organisms.
In the case of RNA, the RNA is a living molecule, and the DNA is an RNA molecule.
“It is a very important part of the DNA that controls the function of the genes, but it is a complicated chemical process,” Schoetzler told Newsweek.
“You need to know a lot about the function to do it.
And this is where we are.”
In other words, you need to understand how the RNA works, and how it interacts with the genes.
“RNA is an essential component of the whole DNA,” Schuettler said.
The RNA can also interact with the proteins of the cell to make copies of the RNA.
That’s why some organisms use RNA as a substitute for DNA.
For example, a protein in the ribosome, the enzyme that makes the riboflavin, can make RNA copies of itself to turn the ribonucleic acid into RNA.
Schoetler explained that RNA copies can also make copies in the cell’s nucleus, which contains the building blocks of DNA.
“When the cell divides, these RNA copies start to make the DNA,” he said.
“They are able to copy DNA without DNA being able to do anything about it.”
The process of creating RNA copies is known as polymerase chain reaction, or PCR.
“These are proteins that break DNA, and when you add more DNA to it, these enzymes produce RNA,” Schofte said.
But what is the process of making RNA copies?
Schoftte and others have found that a specific enzyme, called polymerase A, can convert a protein into a single-stranded RNA molecule called a p53 protein.
That is, a p17 protein that has the desired shape and function can be converted into an RNA copy of itself.
“The DNA and RNA molecules are being made in exactly the same way, but they are the only molecules that can do that,” Schofftler said, adding that it takes a very specific sequence of events, such as adding a single nucleotide, for the two molecules to be able to work together.
In essence, a DNA molecule is turned into a copy of a specific DNA molecule.
And the process is the same in every organism.
For a genome, the process takes a single step, called transduction.
“Transduction is the action of converting a particular DNA molecule to an RNA,” he explained.
The sequence of steps is called a transduction step, and it is important because it tells you how the two DNA molecules are going to look at each other, Schoetts said.
When two DNA copies of an RNA are made, the proteins will combine, producing the RNA that you can then use to make a new DNA molecule from the new RNA.
The process is similar in all living cells, but in certain conditions, such a process may be difficult or impossible.
For instance, Schofts said, in some species, the DNA can be damaged by a virus, so that the RNA copy cannot work.
But the new gene cannot be turned on and turned off by any external factor, such the virus.
So, the task of making a p5-mediated copy of the gene is an extremely difficult task.
“I would argue that you cannot do it with a virus,” Schoste said.
For the past few years, Schoenberg, a graduate student at Princeton University, has been working on creating a p-RNA transduction system that mimics what happens when the genome of an organism is transduced.
He and his team were able to make one of the first transduction steps in the genome, and they have been working to perfect the system ever since.
In June, the researchers showed that the system is able to complete the transduction of a p45 gene in the mouse embryo.
In other parts of the genome where they have succeeded, the system has been able to generate a p21 protein, which has the same effect as the RNA produced by RNA polymerase-A, but can also act as a precursor to the protein p