A team of researchers led by a University of Michigan professor has found that the way genes interact with one another is critical to the evolution of female brains.
The research is part of a wider trend of understanding how sex influences a person’s biology.
Researchers say the findings could lead to treatments for neurological diseases, and could lead researchers to better understand the role of genes in human behavior.
The study, published online today in Nature Neuroscience, used a mouse model that can be manipulated in order to observe how different genes interact.
The researchers used a model of the human brain to see how the brain evolved in the presence of sex.
In the male brain, a particular gene called FMRX2 is active when it senses an ovulation signal.
The mouse model, however, is not active in the female brain.
The researchers also studied the activity of other genes that control the development of female brain cells.
In the female mouse brain, they found that a specific gene called Wnt3a is also active when a signal from an ovulatory cycle is detected.
Wnt is involved in the release of hormones during the ovulation process.
The Wnt-3a pathway is thought to help regulate the expression of many genes, including FMRx2 and Wnt, and also regulates the production of hormones that are released during menstruation.
The Wnt pathway is also activated when the female reproductive tract is exposed to testosterone.
In a female mouse, Wnt1 was also active.
The study showed that Wnt activity was also activated in the developing female brain, when Wnt was active.
In order to understand how Wnt works, the researchers used mice that were genetically engineered to express a protein called the transcription factor Wnt.
This protein is produced by many genes that are involved in various parts of the body, including the heart, immune system, reproductive system and brain.
The transcription factor is a very small molecule and has a very complex structure.
In the mouse model where Wnt2 was active, it acted like a chemical that would be released into the blood when the Wnt protein was activated, creating an inflammatory response.
In fact, the WNT-3A pathway was activated in both sexes when the expression level of Wnt and WNT3A were high.
The scientists also looked at the activity in the male mouse brain when WNT was activated.
They found that WNT2 was also expressed in the brain, and that WNTR1 was activated when WNtr1 was expressed in a male mouse.
The new findings could have major implications for understanding the role genes play in human physiology.
For example, it could help scientists understand how the expression and regulation of genes affect the development and development of the brain.
“It may be possible to use WNTs to study the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of sex-specific brain activity in humans,” the researchers wrote in their paper.
“If we could understand how different proteins are activated in female brains in response to different conditions, then we might be able to predict how to treat conditions in which these protein activation factors are absent.”
“Our results indicate that the WN/WNT pathway is important for regulating gene expression in the adult brain,” said the study’s first author, Daniel P. Kowalski, a professor of biochemistry at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
“There’s so much more to be learned about how the Wn/Wnt pathway works and what it means for development of sex differences in the human adult brain.”
The findings could also be used to study sex differences for neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia.
The ability to change genes, which can lead to different symptoms in different individuals, could be key to understanding the neurobiology of these conditions, said the researchers.
“Sex-specific genes may be key factors in autism spectrum disorders,” said co-author Dr. Eric T. Schoemaker, a neurologist at the Mayo Clinic and a professor in the department of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
“By studying the WNS and WnTR1 proteins, we may be able, in the future, to identify specific proteins that are important for autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders.”
The researchers also plan to investigate whether WNT is involved also in other neurological disorders.
“If we can understand how these proteins are involved, then there’s a possibility that we could develop drugs that are able to treat neurodevelopment disorders such as developmental dyslexia and autism,” Kowelski said.
“It would also be useful for understanding how to modify the Wns/WnTR pathway to produce a therapeutic effect for neurodevelopment conditions.”
For more on this story, read: The genes that cause autism and developmental dyslesia: A look at the genetic differences that may help explain why some children have a different experience from others.
The researchers detailed their findings in